2-8 Consider all of the relevant fair comparisons

A single comparison of treatments rarely provides conclusive evidence and results are often available from other comparisons of the same treatments. These other comparisons may have different results or may help to provide more reliable and precise estimates of the effects of treatments.

Consider all of the relevant fair comparisons.

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Know Your Chances

This book has been shown in two randomized trials to improve peoples' understanding of risk in the context of health care choices.

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The certainty of chance

Ben Goldacre reminds readers how associations may simply reflect the play of chance, and describes Deming’s illustration of this.


How Science Works

Definitions of terms that students have to know for 'How Science Works' and associated coursework, ISAs, etc


The Systematic Review

This blog explains what a systematic review is, the steps involved in carrying one out, and how the review should be structured.



Cartoon and blog about how poorly performed systematic reviews and meta-analyses may misrepresent the truth.


Forest Plot Trilogy

Synthesising the results of similar but separate fair comparisons (meta-analysis) may help by yielding statistically more reliable estimates


Why did you start?

‘Few principles are more fundamental to the scientific and ethical validity of clinical research than that studies should address questions […]


Is one study ever enough?

The simple answer is ‘hardly ever’. Very seldom will one fair treatment comparison yield sufficiently reliable evidence on which to […]

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